The Civil Union Act – South African visas and a broader application

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10 May 2021

We often have South Africans and foreign nationals coming to our office to sign cohabitation agreements, in order to meet South African visa requirements. This arrangement is commonly known as a universal partnership where the parties are cohabiting. The agreement is usually pre-compiled with no reference to legislation and with the only aim to establish that a relationship exists.

Aside from the fact that these agreements often lack foresight in terms of the consequences of termination and rarely provide for the duty of mutual support during or after the termination, there seems to be a growing tendency to refer to the Civil Union Act 17 of 2006 as amended in these pre-populated agreements.

Therefore, couples must understand the context of these agreements and the legislation that governs their relationships.


Historically, the Marriage Act 25 of 1961 defined the common law definition of “marriage” as the legally recognised voluntary union of one man and one woman to exclude others while it lasts.

This legislation was challenged in the case of Minister of Home Affairs and Another v Fourie and Another (CCT 60/04) [2005] ZACC 19; 2006 (3) BCLR 355 (CC); 2006 (1) SA 524 (CC), as the common law and section 30(1) of the Marriage Act denied same-sex couples equal protection and benefit before the law in contravention of section 9(1) of the Constitution. Also, these provisions resulted in same-sex couples being unfairly discriminated against by the state, in conflict with section 9(3) of the Constitution.

The Constitutional Court acknowledged this and declared the provisions of the Marriages Act invalid, to the extent that it did not permit same-sex couples to enjoy the status, benefits and responsibilities it accords to heterosexual couples. Parliament was afforded 12 months from the date of judgment to correct these defects and this resulted in the Civil Union Act 17 of 2006. It provided for the solemnisation of civil unions either in the form of a “marriage” or a “civil partnership”.

Heterosexual couples can, therefore, choose to marry in terms of the Marriages Act or the Civil Union Act. Same-sex couples can only marry in terms of the Civil Unions Act.

A comparison

In both pieces of legislation, the criteria and requirements for marriage are similar. The marital regimes remain unchanged, affording parties the same rights and responsibilities. However, the Civil Union Act differs in that it recognises partnerships that are not solemnised by marriage. This affords couples who choose not to marry the right to enjoy the benefits that marriage brings in sharing in the joint estate.

As determined by the Matrimonial Property Act 88 of 1984 as amended, couples seeking to “marry” under the Civil Union Act would need to execute an Antenuptial Contract with or without the application of the accrual system to regulate the proprietary consequences of their marriage. Failing this, they would be married in community of property.


It is essential that couples, whether South Africans or not, entering into these agreements for whatever reason bear in mind that these are agreements with far-reaching consequences. They should not be entered into lightly and couples should seek professional advice before signing any such contract. Contact an Attorney at SchoemanLaw Inc today.

See also:

(This article is provided for informational purposes only and not for the purpose of providing legal advice. For more information on the topic, please contact the author/s or the relevant provider.)
Nicolene Schoeman-Louw

Mrs Nicolene Schoeman – Louw founded the firm in 2007, aged 24, and is now the Managing Director of the firm. Nicolene is an admitted Attorney of the High Court... Read more about Nicolene Schoeman-Louw


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